Sunday, March 8, 2020
Copmare Example Copmare Ã¢â¬â Coursework Example Ebay and Amazon are two of the largest online retailers in the world. In order to compare the financial performance of both these companies a ratio analysis of its financial statements was calculated. The ratio analysis is illustrated in the table below.The net margin of Ebay is 17.80%. Ebays profitability is outstanding considering the fact that Amazons profitability was only 0.37%. One of the reasons that Ebay has a higher profitability is because the company incurs in lower operating costs. Return on assets shows how effective a company has been at generating profits from its assets. In 2013 Ebay had a return on assets of 6.88%, while Amazon had a much lower ROA at 0.68%. Return on equity measures a corporations profitability by revealing how much profit a company generates with the money shareholders have invested (Investodepia). Ebay had a return on equity in 2013 of 12.08% which is higher than Amazons result of 2.81%. The total asset turnover measures how efficient a company i s at generating revenue from its assets. Ebay had a total asset turnover in 2013 of 0.39. Amazon had a much better total asset turnover in 2013 with a result of 1.85. The times interest earned measures the amount of income that can be used to cover the interest expense of the company. A high times interest earned is the desirable outcome. Ebay had a times interest earned of 35.48. Amazon had a much lower times interest earned at 19.61. The current ratio shows the ability of a company to pay off its short term debt. The formula to calculate current ratio is current assets divided by current liabilities The current ratio of Ebay was 1.84, while Amazon had a current ratio of 1.07. Ebays current ratio is better. The quick ratio is another short term solvency metric that is similar to the current ratio, but it eliminates inventory from the numerator of the formula. Ebay does not hold any inventory, thus its quick ratio is the same as its current ratio at 1.84. Amazon had a quick ratio in 2013 of 0.75. Based on the ratio analysis performed Ebay is a better investment option because the company has superior profitability and liquidity. Work Cited PageInvestopedia.com. 2014. Return on Equity Ã¢â¬â ROE. 14 November 2014.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Identify failures of the now discontinued brand Ralph Lauren Rugby and propose a marketing strategy for the re-launch of that brand - Essay Example The company even uses various advertisement campaigns to position the brand in minds of the targeted audience. The store layout is also re-structured. The marketing strategy developed is proposed to Mr. Ralph Lauren in order to persuade him to re-launch the brand. The Ralph Lauren Corporation was incorporated in the year 1967 and was a world renowned clothing brand that defined the American lifestyle. Mr. Ralph Lauren started this company by selling ties which was completely different in design to the tradition design of ties used by men in America. His range of colourful ties gave birth to a brand called Polo. In the later years the product range of the brand widened which included footwear, luxury accessories, apparel, and home furnishings. The company comprised of various brands apart from Polo such as Pink Pony, Chaps, Club Monaco, Black Label, RRL and RLX, American Living, Purple Label, and Rugby. The brand Rugby was launched in the year 2004. Despite of the success of the company this Rugby brand failed miserably in the market place and finally the brand was closed in the year 2012. The common reasons for failure of a fashion brand are its incapability to maintain a leading edge or to remain as trendy in order to meet the demand of the customers. In the years when Rugby was launched there exist a lot of competition in the preppy brand market space. The high priced products had made the brand unable to capture the maximum of the market share. The preppy style of the brand was very fashionable from the starting years of its launch but somewhere the other offerings of the brand were really absurd even for its target market. The offerings of the brand were such as a pair of sweat pants with English style classic boating blazer or herringbone three-row-two sport jacket. The combinations offered by the brand were no doubt fashionable but at the same time they were not that much appealing
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Why Do I Want to Be a Professional Counselor - Personal Goals - Assignment Example I currently work as a restaurant server ad a cheer coach. I love my jobs as they give me a chance to work with different kinds of people so I do not want to give them up when I go on my internship course. I need a total of 250 hours to complete the pre-practicum and practicum requirements of my program. I have informed my employers about my program. Once I have my schedule at the internship site(s), my two employers and I will work out a schedule so I can meet my practicum hours and still satisfy my obligation to them. I am hoping my bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degrees and current job experiences will help me be an effective youth counselor after graduation. I have already seen several schools advertising for intern counselors on the Internet. I would be paid hourly so this could help my finances. I need to start planning for my practicum as early as possible. Especially in my situation as a working student, I should be able to know early how I will be managing my time to fulfil my workload and practicum schedule. Filing for the practicum course should be done 16 weeks prior to the start of the practicum. Although I can specify a definite practicum site after filing, I would still prefer planning ahead. I was able to get my bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree four years after high school so I would like to finish my masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree without delay as well. Together with time management, I need to plan early for the cost as well. Liability insurance, a requirement to start the practicum course costs a minimum coverage of $1,000.00 per claim and $3,000.00 aggregate. There is also the cost of the licensure exams. Aside from passing my school tests, I need to take and pass a licensure exam from the National Board of Certified Counselors or Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certific ation. To register for the test, I need to submit a complete application packet and the $250 fee. Once approved for a license, I need to pay either a $100 or $250 license issuance fee. Getting my license will make me eligible to work as a professional counselor. This is why meeting the state requirements is very important.Ã
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
African Trypanosomiasis Sleeping Sickness Biology Essay African trypanosomiasis also known as sleeping sickness is a wide spread parasitic disease (disease caused by organism that lives in or on another from which it obtains nourishment) that can be fatal if not treated. It is estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that it has 450 000 cases each year, however in the past there have epidemics (a rapid spread or increase) such as between 1896 and 1906 where it is believed that 300 000 to 500 000 died from the disease.  African trypanosomiasis is common in the sub-Saharan region near rivers, lakes, in gallery forests and in Savannahs where the large brown tsetse flies are present. It occurs in these remote rural areas because the health systems are weak and because most of these areas depend on agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry or hunting so they are exposed to the tsetse flies. The disease has been present in Africa for a minimum of 14 centuries with millions of people being affected by it. As you can see below (in figure 1) the distribution of trypanosomiasis in Africa comprises currently an area of 8 million km2 between 14 degrees North and 20 degrees South latitude. tryp_map.gif [Fig. 1] Distribution of human African trypanosomiasis. http://www.who.int/tdrold/dw/images/legend5.gifEpidemic http://www.who.int/tdrold/dw/images/legend6.gifHigh endemicity http://www.who.int/tdrold/dw/images/legend4.gifLow endemicity http://www.who.int/tdrold/dw/images/legend7.gifAt risk http://www.who.int/tdrold/dw/images/legend3.gifAbsence of the diseaseÃ As well as African trypanosomiasis also occurs in South America it is called the American trypanosomiasis or the Chagas disease however the organism causing that disease is different to the Tsetse flies. African trypanosomiasis is however more common than the South American version and it is estimated that around 50,000 to 70,000 people are currently infected with it and around 48,000 people died from it in 2008.  If, like most diseases, African Trypanosomiasis is diagnosed early there is a high chance of survival. There are no effective vaccines, and the drugs used to treat this disease are often toxic and usually have many side effects. Untreated cases have a 100 percentÃ mortality rate.  The extent of African Trypanosomiasis is shown more clearly when compared to other diseases and during epidemic periods prevalence reached 50% in several villages in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola and Southern Sudan. Sleeping sickness was the first or second greatest cause of mortality in those communities, ahead of even HIV/AIDS.  There are two types of African trypanosomiasis which are common in humans. The first of the two sub species is trypanosomiasis brucei gambiense which causes a slow chronic trypanosomiasis in humans. This mostly occurs in central and western Africa, where humans are thought to be the primary target. The second is T. brucei rhodesiense and this causes a rapid onset of trypanosomiasis in humans and this is most common in southern and eastern Africa, where animals are the primary target. Tsetse flies are large flies which can be easily misinterpreted for a housefly but can be distinguished by various characteristics. These flies cause human sleeping sickness and animal trypanosomiasis (or nagana) as well as other diseases and its estimated it kills around 250,000 to 300,000 people a year. Tsetse flies are multivoltine (they have more than 2 generations per year) and there are 23 species of this fly existent today. Tsetse flies include all the species in the genus Glossina, which are generally placed in their own family, the Glossinidae.  AfrTryp_LifeCycle.gif[Fig. 2]  When a tsetse fly bites it takes blood from a human or animal host.  If the tsetse fly is infected it injects metacyclic trypomastigotes into skin tissue and the parasites enter the lymphatic system (part of the immune system) and pass into the bloodstream. Inside the host, they transform into bloodstream trypomastigotes and are carried to other parts of the body.  After this bloodstream trypomastigotes reach other blood fluids such as lymph, spinal fluid and continue the replication by binary fission (Asexual reproduction where parent cells divide into two equal parts.). [4/5] The entire life cycle of African Trypanosomes is in extracellular (outside the cells) stages. A tsetse fly becomes infected with bloodstream trypomastigotes when taking a blood meal on an infected host .  In the tsetse flies midgut (the mid section of the digestive tract), the parasites generate a cycle of trypomastigotes, they then multiply by binary fission and leave the midgut.  Thereafter the parasites transform into epimastigotes (a developmental stage in trypanosomes)  The epimastigotes reach the flys salivary glands and continue multiplication by binary fission . This cycle in the fly takes approximately 3 weeks to occur. http://www.icp.ucl.ac.be/~opperd/parasites/images/dia3.jpg[Fig.3] This picture shows an African male in the late stage of African trypanosomiasis Describe the biological processes involved in producing solutions to the problem You can spot African trypanosomiasis early if the following symptoms occur, and treating the disease early increases the chances of survival. Symptoms of sleeping sickness begin with fever, headaches, and joint pains. If untreated, the disease slowly overcomes the immune defences of the infected person, and symptoms spread to anaemia, cardiovascular and kidney disorders. The disease then enters a neurological phase when the parasite passes through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The symptoms of the second phase is what gives the disease its name, sleeping sickness, besides confusion and reduced coordination, the sleep cycle is disturbed with a period of lower level consciousness and periods of inability to sleep progressing to daytime drowsiness and night-time insomnia. Without treatment, the disease is fatal, with progressive mental deterioration leading to coma and death. Damage caused in the neurological phase can be irreversible.  Stage 1 illness: 2 to 3 weeks later, Stage 1 disease develops as a result of the protozoa being carried through the blood and lymph circulation of the host. This phase of the illness is represented by a high fever that falls and rises again, also irritating rashes, and headaches may occur. The Gambiense form, in particular, includes extreme swelling of lymph tissue, with enlargement of both the spleen and liver, and greatly swollen lymph nodes. During this stage, the heart may be affected by a severe inflammatory reaction, particularly when the infection is caused by the Rhodesiense variety of trypanosomiasis. These symptoms usually occur because of our immune system trying to defeat the invading organism; this is because of the increasing activity of our cells damaging organs and tissues. This may cause some blood vessels to leak and as a result of this the protozoa may spread further around the body. The immune system responds so violently because the trypanosomes survive so well by quickly changing specific markers, which are the outer coats of unique proteins. These proteins stimulate the hosts immune system to produce immune cells which will specifically target the marker, allowing quick destruction of those cells bearing the markers. Trypanosomes, however, are able to express new markers at such a high rate of change that the hosts immune system is constantly trying to catch up. Stage 2 illness This involves the nervous system, especially Gambiense sleeping sickness, which has a phase in which the symptoms involve the brain. These symptoms are that the patients speech becomes slurred, mental processes slow, and the patient sits and stares for long periods of time, or sleeps. Other symptoms resemble Parkinsons disease, including imbalance when walking, slow and shuffling gait, trembling of the limbs, involuntary movements, muscle tightness, and increasing mental confusion. Untreated, these symptoms could eventually lead to coma and then to death.  There are various treatments for the disease but it depends on the how bad the disease has got and what stage it is at. Suramin, eflornithine, pentamidine, and several drugs which contain arsenic (a chemical which in higher doses is highly poisonous to humans), are all effective anti-trypanosomal agents. When the disease is in its early stages it is easier to control and its treatments are the most effective, the least toxic, so the earlier the identification of the disease, the better the prospect of a cure. At the second stage the treatments depend on drugs that can cross the blood and the brain, to reach the parasite, however these drugs are more toxic and therefore carry a risk with them. There are four drugs that have been registered for the treatment of sleeping sickness which are; pentamidine, melarsoprol, eflornithine and suramin. If the disease is diagnosed early, the chances of cure are high. The type of treatment depends on the phase of the disease: initial or neurological. During which the second stage of the trypanosome parasites reside in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) so success in the latter phase depends on having a drug that can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to reach the parasite. Four drugs have been used until now. Without treatment, sleeping sickness will lead to death. Unfortunately, however, those medications effective against the Trypanosoma brucei complex protozoa all have significant potential side effects for the patient. An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is AFHS0604-0223Fig1.jpg Object name is AFHS0604-0223Fig1.jpg [Fig 4] Sleeping sickness in South-Eastern Uganda from 1905- 2001 As you can see in figure 5 there were a high number of deaths of people from Trypanosomiasis from 1905-1915 but even thought the number decreases there have still been a lot of cases in this small region in the past 30 years and the number has been predicted to increase from The First Stage Treatment Suramin: Suramin is a colourless derivative. The development of suramin followed observations that a number substances. Suramin has six negative charges at physiological pH, thereby preventing its diffusion across cell membranes and it could possibly be used against late stage trypanosomiasis because it does not cross the BBB. Suramin is generally considered the drug of choice for the early stages of human African trypanosomiasis, especially T. b. rhodesiense infections. Because of the size and charge of suramin it makes it unsuitable to have a specific transporter. Suramin easily binds to many proteins. At attainable levels, more than 75% of suramin is bound to proteins, which include low-density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL and transferin are taken up through a receptor-mediated endocytosis and suramin enters the parasite specifically found to LDL. Accumulation of the drug in trypanosomes is relatively slow. In some studies, suramin has interfered with the metabolism of trypanosomes in different ways: It hampers the receptor mediated uptake of LDL, the carrier of cholesterol which is required for parasite growth Suramin, which enters via receptor mediated endocytosis in association with LDL, is most likely to accumulate inside the lysosome. Several of the enzymes encountered by suramin on its way from the extracellular fluid to the secondary lysosomes become inhibited by suramin. Many glycolytic enzymes located inside the glycosome on the African trypanosome carry a high positive charge, and therefore are all inhibited by micro molar levels of suramin. Second Stage Treatment Eflornithine: Eflornithine is an off-white, odourless, powder; the compound is freely soluble in water and sparingly soluble in ethanol. It is used mainly as a backup drug for melarsoprol but now in places such as Uganda it has become the first line treatment for sleeping sickness. Adverse drug reactions during eflornithine therapy are frequent. Their occurrence and intensity increase with the duration of treatment and the severity of the general condition of the patient. Generally, adverse reactions to eflornithine are reversible after the end of treatment. Trypanosomes are more susceptible to the drug than human cells, possibly due to the slow turnover of the ODC enzyme (which is key in the biosynthesis of polyamines) in T. b. gambiense. Eflornithine can effectively inhibit ODC activity and use the supply of polyamines in trypanosomes, which bring them into a motionless state that makes them vulnerable to the hosts immune attack. Therefore, a sufficiently active immune system is required to achieve a cure. Additionally, eflornithine induces the differentiation of thin forms to larger forms which do not divide anymore and therefore become accessible to the immune system.  It was found in a study that the effectiveness of eflornithine was 98.7% on its patients which is a high cure rate. Explain how the processes used are appropriate in terms of producing effective solutions to address the problem As you can see a total of 6 patients died, 5 of them on the 14 day course therefore the 7 day course seems to be much more effective. The 7 day course seems to be cause less adverse events in general then the 14 day course. [Fig. 5] However concluding figure 6 we can see that the probability of cure is higher in the 14 day regime then the 7 day regime. So even though there are some side effects of the 14 day regime still has a greater chance of curing the disease.[Fig. 6] F1_medium.gif [Fig. 7] A total of 103 patients with second-stage disease were enrolled. Cure rates were 94.1% for the eflornithine group and 96.2% for the nifurtimox-eflornithine group. Drug reactions were frequent in both arms, and severe reactions affected 25.5% of patients in the eflornithine group and 9.6% of those in the nifurtimox-eflornithine group, resulting in 2 and 1 treatment suspensions, respectively. There was 1 death in the eflornithine arm and no deaths in the nifurtimox-eflornithine arm.  The nifurtimox-eflornithine combination appears to be a promising first-line therapy for second-stage sleeping sickness.  F1_medium.gif [Fig 8] shows the probability of an event free survival among 1055 patients; they were treated with eflornithine for newly diagnosed second stage human African trypanosomiasis in Ibba, Southern Sudan. 1756-3305-1-3-3.jpg[Fig. 9] The combined efforts of chemotherapy, systematic case detection and vector control led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of sleeping sickness at the beginning of the 1960s as shown in figure 2. The grey bars represent the number of cases whilst the line graph shows the population screened. Identify 2 implications of the solution encountered Suramin As suramin can only be injected it causes problems as African Trypanosomiasis can be spread easily from the needles not bring cleaned properly. If the patients who dont have the disease are injecting with the same unclean needle as people who are diagnosed this would result in the non-infected patients being infected. Further problems of suramin are that it has many side effects which include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, metallic taste and joint pain. Less common side effects are loss of vision and swelling around eyes. It can even rarely cause fainting and death. The advantages are that many of these side effects can be stopped by using a small sample dose, 100 mg IV, to test any toxic reactions of the patients. Eflornithine The route of application makes financial difficulties due to the workload and the additional material needed. A recently investigated abbreviated course of 7 days was found to cause a high relapse rate for the treatment of new cases. The superior outcome reported for the treatment of relapses still has to be confirmed, since there were a very small number of participants in the study. If there was an oral form for the treatment of sleeping sickness it would be more appropriate as it would be cheaper and less time consuming. In a study the average cost of eflornithine per patient being 552.3 USD and the cost per patients life saved averaging 559.8 USD.  Eflornithine also has side effects which include acne stinging skin; headache; dry skin; itching; erythema (redness); dyspepsia(upset stomach or indigestion); alopecia Fortunately there are advantages of this drug as efforts for the developments of an oral form of eflornithine are currently being made under the World Health Organisation/World Bank special programme for research and training in tropical diseases. This drug is generally better tolerated than the first line drug melarsoprol. It was found in a study that the effectiveness of eflornithine was 98.7% on its patients which is very high and therefore if the illness is treated within its late stages, stage 2, the chances of survival are still high. Evaluate the benefits and risks to humans, organisms and the environment Benefits: The side effects of Suramin can be stopped by using a small sample dose, 100 mg IV, to test any toxic reactions of the patients, so this means it could An oral form of eflornithine is currently being made under the World Health Organisation/World Bank special programme for research and training in tropical diseases. This would lead to cheaper costs of to treat a patient; therefore more people can be treated and cured. Effectiveness of eflornithine is 98.7% on its patients which is very high and therefore if the illness is treated within its late stages, stage 2, the chances of survival are still high, so a lot less people die when using the treatment. Disadvantges: The average cost of eflornithine per patient being 552.3 USD is far too high to cure most of the people especially because the treatment mainly depends on donated money as the government of the Third World countries are too poor to afford the treatment, so by using this lots of people may never be treated and therefore there may be a rise in the death rate. As the treatment of patients decreases, if people donate less, the number of deaths from the disease will increase. Further disadvantages of the treatments are that they both carry many side effects, even though some of these side effects arent major, the lack of treatments in these poor countries could result in a gradual decrease in health over time. Also some of the side effects and over doses could lead to death or serious illnesses so it is important to administer the drugs carefully and correctly as the end result could be fatal. Discuss alternative views or solutions for the problem encountered Pentamidine: Pentamidine can be used instead of suramin for a first stage treatment of trypanosomiasis. It is medication with a very slow rate of diffusion across biological membranes and it only treats the T.B.G. form of African sleeping sickness in the first stage. It could be injected or inhaled by the patient. Because of poor GI absorption, the drug is administered IV/IM and is strongly bound to tissues, including spleen, liver, and kidney. Clinical improvement usually noted within 24 h of injection. Reported to have a >90% cure rate. Pentamidine does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier effectively and, therefore, does not treat CNS infection.  Fifty-eight patients in the early-late stage (early central nervous system involvement) of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis were treated with pentamidine and divided into four groups according to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) indicators: white blood cell (WBC) count, protein level (CSF protein), and the presence or absence of trypanosomes. Group 1 consisted of eight patients with normal CSF WBC counts and CSF protein levels and trypanosomes in the CSF. Group 2 consisted of nine patients with elevated CSF WBC counts, normal level of CSF protein, and trypanosomes in the CSF. Group 3 consisted of 31 patients with high CSF WBC counts, normal CSF protein levels, but no trypanosomes in the CSF. Group 4 consisted of 10 patients with normal CSF WBC counts and CSF protein levels and trypanosomes demonstrated by CSF culture. Post-treatment follow-up of all patients for at least one year revealed three relapses. There were two deaths from diseases unrelated to trypanosomiasis or to the treatment protocol. Of these patients, 52 were followed for more than two years, the time necessary to confirm a complete cure, indicating a cure rate of 94%. Pentamidine is therefore effective in treating the early-late stage of T. b. gambiense trypanosomiasis, and is comparable with melarsoprol or eflornithine in terms of its tolerance and availability.  Side effects: Shortness of breath; closing of the throat; hives; swelling of the lips, face, or tongue; rash; or faintin;, bleeding or bruising; blurred vision; chest pain or irregular heart beat; chills; difficulty breathing dizziness, fainting spells or excessive tiredness; drastic appetite changes; mouth ulcers severe stomach pain; severe headache; seizureshttp://bryanking.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/hives.jpg [Fig 10] This picture shows hives which is a common side effect of pentamidine Melarsoprol: Melarsoprol contains an arsenic element with a reactive arsenoxide group. The presence of the arsenoxide enables the ability of lipid solubility and this allows passage across the BBB. Apart from its transport function, the arsenoxide group mediates in the killing of the parasites in the bodily fluid; CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid). Modification of the melarsoprol parent ring to generate other analogous compounds can have a significant impact on its trypanocidal efficacy. The trivalent arsenicals; melarsoprol, melarsen oxide and phenylarsen are highly active with a minimum inhibitory concentration. Usually the transport of melarsoprol into the trypanosome parasite is accomplished by purine tranporters. Purine transport is highly developed in trypanosomes as they do not synthesize nucleic acids and must directly acquire them from their hosts. Resistance The failure of melarsoprol to cure 10% of the late stage sleeping sickness patients possibly relates to the fact that these individuals accumulate levels of the drug in the brain. However, one study has indicated that the levels of drug are similar in the CSF of relapsing and non-relapsing patients, so parasites at other extravascular sites may be key to the treatment failure. In some regions, treatment failures have reached high levels up to 30%. Parasites retrieved from the patients with these treatment failures were less responsive to melarsoprol than parasites isolated from other foci. This clearly points to some form of mutation towards resistance. Indeed arsenic refractory parasites do possess an unusual amino purine transporter which accumulates melarsoprol and the loss of this transporter in the parasite leads to drug resistance. T. brucei contains several of the purine nucleoside transporter activities.  Melarsoprol is a good alternative and is used as the first line drug against Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in many countries. This is because the drug has longer intervals between when the dosages should be taken so it requires fewer resources and is therefore cheaper. However melarsoprol is a highly dangerous treatment, only administered by injection under the supervision of a physician. It causes a range of side effects, among them convulsions, fever, unconsciousness etc. It is fatal in and of itself in approx. 10% of the cases. Meanwhile eflornithine is a modern and far less dangerous treatment for HAT but it is expensive not widely available in the market and the money for supplies are usually dependable on donations. Melarsoprol is a good alternative and is used as the first line drug against Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in many countries. This is because the drug has longer intervals between when the dosages should be taken so it requires fewer resources and is therefore cheaper. However melarsoprol is a highly dangerous treatment, only administered by injection under the supervision of a physician. It causes a range of side effects, among them convulsions, fever, unconsciousness etc. It is fatal in and of itself in approx. 10% of the cases. Meanwhile eflornithine is a modern and far less dangerous treatment for HAT but it is expensive not widely available in the market and the money for supplies are usually dependable on donations.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Anne Frank and Frederick Douglass Everyone has hope in something whether it is possible or seemingly impossible. Anne Frank and Frederick Douglass, among many differences and similarities, both had hope in something others may not have believed to be possible. They never gave up their hope that they so desperately clung to when they were in bondage. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Anne Frank and Frederick Douglass were both held in bondage, each in a different way. Frank was kept from the public eye for fear she would be caught and killed by the Germans. Even before she went into hiding she had to abide by so many restrictions that she had no freedom at all. On the other hand, Douglass was born a slave and had never known what it was like to be free, kept in bondage by his master. Despite everything they both kept their hopes that they would be free one day and people would no longer discriminate against them. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Also, while Frank and Douglass were in bondage they had several people who helped them along the way. They couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have made it without these helpers. Douglass had his masterÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and the young white boys who helped him learn his alphabet and his basic reading. He also had the Underground Railroad abolitionist to help him on the road to freedom. Frank also had help from some friends of her dad, Kraler and Koophuis. They helped hide them and bring food and supplies to Frank and her family. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In addition to having helpers, Frank and Douglass both were good writers. Even th...
Saturday, January 11, 2020
What is OJT ? * OJT (On-the-Job Training), sometimes called direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training (observational learning is probably the earliest,). It is a one-on-one training located at the job site, where someone who knows how to do a task shows another how to perform it. In antiquity, the kind of work that people did was mainly unskilled or semiskilled work that did not require specialized knowledge. Parents or other community members, who knew how to do a job necessary for survival, passed their knowledge on to the children through direct instruction. Advantages : * Trainees are provided with job experience, an invaluable asset for achieving gainful employment. * Trainees are exposed to the numerous advantages that are associated with being employed. They earn an income through a stipend but they also become more familiar with interpersonal relationships, networking, responsibility and the importance of interdependence within the working environment. * Trainees get an opportunity to prove themselves to an employer and, based on their work performance and the existence of vacancies within the organization, they may eventually be employed on a more permanent basis. * Training time is reduced when compared to traditional off site learning. * From an employerÃ¢â¬â¢s prospective, OJT can be an advantage in that it can increase the productivity of workers. Well-trained employees will be better at performing their jobs no matter what type of job they hold. Even though it is costly to train employees, the investment can pay off in the future as workers employ their new skills. Work that is low quality or performed improperly can also be costly; training can help eliminate these issues. Disadvantage: * Traditional OJT relies heavily on an experienced employee to provide the instruction based on what they feel are the most important topics. What is important to one employee may not be important to another. The result is what is learned may vary greatly, depending on who is assigned as the trainer. * Without a structured lesson guide, OJT trainers often forget to cover important information. What is learned is likely to be based on what happened that day rather than on what a new employee needs to know to be safe and productive. * While the hands-on aspect of OJT may appeal to the practical learner, often the underlying theories of operation are not covered in sufficient detail or accuracy. Without this foundation of knowledge, trainees often learn what to do, not why they are doing it, resulting in poor decision making when things donÃ¢â¬â¢t go exactly right. * The trainee observes and may adopt the trainerÃ¢â¬â¢s habits and attitudes about all aspects of the job including safety, quality, customer service, and relationship with management. Poorly selected trainers can have many unintended consequences. * More prone to errors and risk .
Friday, January 3, 2020
7 CHAPTER 2 AMBIENT RF ENERGY HARVESTING COMPONENTS AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 RECTENNA ITS COMPONENT A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, a sort of antenna that is used to convert microwave energy or radio frequency energy into direct current signal that can power low sensor devices. They are modelled as a part of wireless power transmission systems that transmit power through radio waves or electromagnetic waves. A basic rectenna, comprises of a microstrip patch antenna with a RF diode. It is nonlinear rectifying element (for example Schottky diode, Zener diode, IMPATT diode.... etc.). The diode rectifies the alternating current or bidirectional current induced in the patch antenna by the RF waves, to generate DC or unidirectionalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦2.1.2 RECTIFIER A rectifier is an electrical device that converts bi-directional current or alternating current (AC), to unidirectional current or direct current (DC). This process is called rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including high-voltage direct current power transmission systems, in DC power supplies and in detection of radio signals. There are two types of rectifier, the half wave rectifier and the full wave rectifier. In our case, given the need of matching as the less number of components, half wave rectifier has been used. 18.104.22.168 Half Wave Rectifier The half wave rectifier rectifies only half cycle of the AC input waveform. The half wave rectifier consists of a step down transformer, a diode connected to the transformer and a load resistance connected to the cathode side of the diode. 22.214.171.124 Full Wave Rectifier The circuit of full wave rectifier uses two rectifier elements and the transformer with secondary center tapped. One for the positive half cycle and other for the negative half cycle. The output DC in full wave rectifier is twice that of half wave rectifier and the frequency is twice that of the supply frequency. 2.1.3 IMPEDANCE MATCHING Impedance matching is one of the most eminent part of the RF circuits. It is utilized for the purpose of transferring maximum